Motivation & Effective Leadership : Important Aspects for Leaders & Managers
Motivation & Effective Leadership are crucial elements of leading and management in general. In the last post & video, we started Leadership function and explained both managing behavior and communication. The two elements of today’s lessons are strongly linked and related to last session’s points because all of them make out the leading managerial function, which is the 5th part of the channel’s first book (Management 2015). We have already introduced the book in a previous video, and discussed parts 1 to 4 of it in previous posts & videos. To download the presentation associated with this video in PDF, please go to Youtube and click on the link in the description section below the video.
Motivation & Effective Leadership : Motivation Concept & Importance
Motivation is the process by which the efforts are energized, directed and sustained towards achieving goals. It’s a continuous & iterative process and extremely crucial for all leaders. People are different in what motivates them depending on their perception, characteristics, culture etc. Thus, there is no one universal theory or rule for motivation. Instead, several motivation theories were stated in the literature. The book divides them into early theories (a bit simplistic and general) like Maslow Hierarchy of Needs (physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization) and contemporary theories (more comprehensive) like the Expectancy theory below.
From the contemporary theories, Expectancy Theory is considered the most comprehensive ones. It makes a link between people’s efforts and their expectations of the final outcomes of these efforts as per their own goals. The theory has three links or elements:
- Expectancy or efforts-performance link: how efforts lead to performance improvement ;
- Instrumentality or performance-outcome link: how improved performance leads to specific outcomes;
- Valence or attractiveness of rewards: how attractive and suitable the achieved outcomes (rewards) are for the individual depending on their perception and their own goals.
Leaders & Leadership : Influencing Others
Motivation is one of the most important aspects of leadership because it involves interacting, working with people and encouraging them to achieve common goals. This takes us to discuss leadership process in general. As stated in the previous post, there is no one universal 1-only-applicable rule in leadership. However, the book defines leaders as the persons who can influence others and have managerial positions. Besides, it defines leadership as the process of influencing others to achieve goals.
Leadership has three basic elements: the leader, followers and situation, which are strongly related to the various leadership theories in the literature. First, early theories of leadership focused on the traits and characteristics of the leader then their behavior. After that, contingency theories of leadership were more comprehensive and discussed leadership in terms of its three different elements and the interaction between them. Finally, contemporary view of leadership includes the focus on charismatic leadership and team leadership. It also makes a distinction between managers and their ability to lead teams due to the managers’ nature, characteristics and skills. Thus, many companies and institutions are providing specialized, intense and focused leadership training for managers and future leaders to equip them with knowledge, skills, practice and traits for effective team leadership.
Leaders influence people, who consequently follow them, primarily because of the power they have. Thus, effective leaders are the ones who wisely use their power types and choose the optimum leadership style that best suit themselves, their followers and the situation they manage at, including characteristics and status of both individuals and teams. The power types are authority, coercion, reward, expert and referent power. At the end, the book provides eight traits and characteristics of effective leadership that various studies have highlighted (below picture)These traits state that leaders should have the abilities and skills to drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, extraversion and proneness to guilt. To conclude, leadership is primarily a matter of interacting with others and influencing them by using motivation and other techniques to let them follow you towards reaching goals.
That was the end of the 3rd managerial function (Leading). Thank you so much for reading and watching. Next session, we will start discussing the 4th and last managerial function which is Controlling. Watch and follow us each Thursday on your channel Management with Merits – Manage to Prosper. Subscribe to the channel in Youtube and activate the notifications bell there. Follow us, participate with us and share the channel via all our electronic platforms.