Training and Development

Training and development are crucial aspects not only for companies and employees, but for all groups and persons, including governments, families, and people. Without proper training and development , people would be living in the stone era and would lack all the contemporary and modern scientific, technological, and social advancements. In companies, training should be specific to the needs of employees, which include new and current workforce. Besides, development should be based on the organizational interests and the companies’ strategic goals and objectives. As a result, integrated organizational development shall systematically target all organizational parties: individuals, groups, and departments. In the individual level, career management is an important element that guides the employees’ dedication and effort towards the organization. Career management includes the cumulative experiences and aspirations of the employees throughout their stay in the organization, which shall ensure the desired employees advancement and the company’s overall performance. This session discusses training and development , including career management, which are the topics of Part 3 (Training & Development – Chapters 8,9,10) at Human Resource Management Book 2020. It is our 2nd book in the 2nd Year Books’ Program within the service of Global English Management & Leadership Books in your channel Management with Merits (MANWIM)- Manage to Prosper. Next English session, we will start Part 4 (Compensation), including salaries, benefits, and so forth. To download the associated presentation (PDF) and to access the related sessions, kindly go to the video at our YouTube channel and click on the appropriate link on the description section below the video.

Training and Development

Orientation and Training

New selected employees at any company should be properly integrated in the company’s culture and context to become part of the company’s family and to contribute positively towards achieving organizational goals. Companies do so via orientation or “Onboarding” programs for new employees. As per the figure below, Toyota Manufacturing Company in the U.S. has 4-days’ onboarding program for new employees, which ensures that these employees have been immersed in Toyota’s culture of quality and teamwork. No matter how great recruitment or selection process is or how talented the new employees are, there are no guarantees for optimum performance if these employees did not receive good organizational orientation and training to know what they should do and how they should do it.

Training and Development at Toyota for new employees includes a complete program of 4 days.
Orientation and Boarding Model

ADDIE Model in Training and Development

ADDIE Training Model (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate) is one of the most famous training models in the personal and professional settings, as per the below figure. Plenty of companies utilize this model in their training strategies and programs. The model makes it clear that training is not limited to new employees only but embraces the whole organizational workforce on a continuous basis. As per the model, training starts with analyzing the areas at which employees need to be trained, such as specific competencies, skills, knowledge gaps, and so forth. Based on the needs, an integrated and holistic training programs should be designed, which include training objectives, methods, duration, budget, procedures, and so forth. After that, the requirements for the designed training must be developed, including training funds, materials, trainers, halls, simulators, schedules, and so forth. Now, the company is ready to actually implement and perform the training which has to be evaluated periodically to check whether the training outcomes were in tandem with the agreed outcomes via tests, close observation, positive changes in work performance, surveys, and so forth.

ADDIE Training Model is one of the most important models in the world.
ADDIE Training Model

Training and Development: Career Management and Performance Evaluation:

As shown in the first figure below, career management and performance evaluation are strongly interrelated because most companies base their employees’ related decisions on the performance evaluation, and employees know that good appraisals help them progress well in their careers. Employees and companies are mutually responsible for career management and performance evaluation as per the 2nd below figure.

Training and Development are strongly interrelated to career management and performance evaluation.
Career Management & Performance Evaluation
Employees and Company are equally responsible for employees' career management.
Employees and Company in Career Management


As shown in the below figure, employees must analyze their current job situation and think of their career future aspirations, including the nature of the job and its benefits. Based on that, employees should figure out the gaps between their current and aspired career conditions, such as knowledge areas, skills, competencies, etc., and think how they can cover these gaps.  

Employees have the ultimate responsibility for career management.
Employees’ Role in Career Management


On the other hand, as shown in the below figure, companies shall assist employees in their career management. Organizations shall ensure open and transparent culture as well as maintain integrated rewards-based schemes and programs that aim collaboratively to motivate employees to manage and develop their careers for the benefits of the workforce and the company.

Companies must guide employees in their career management.
Company’s Role in Career Management

Performance Evaluation

Performance evaluation plays an important role in career management because it helps employees and the company to periodically gauge the success of their career management efforts via an interrelated 3-pahsed cycle as per the 1st below figure: a) Set clear measurable work standards and communicate them well to the workforce; b) periodically observe the performance and compare it with the standards; and c) provide accurate work-related feedback, including both positive and negative areas, discuss the feedback with employees, and agree mutually on future action plans.  Definitely, good career management and performance evaluation ensure harmony between the benefits and aspirations of both employees and companies, which improves talents’ retention with the company and reduces talents’ loss in the forms of resignation, termination,  transfer to other companies, and so forth.

There are 3 cycles in performance and evaluation within organizational training and development .
Performance and Evaluation

Training and Development : End of Session

Training and development concepts and practices are key points towards achieving success in the personal and professional levels. Each of us must ensure to have clear training and development strategies and plans and work hard in achieving them in order to make our dreams and aspirations come true.

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